The first settlements on the territory of modern Tarnobrzeg date back to the Xth century. From the XIVth century the history of modern Tarnobrzeg was tightly connected with the aristocratic Tarnowski family. On May 23, 1953 on the initiative of this family, King Sigismund III Vasa issued and approved the city charter, allowed the construction of Dzików castle (Tarnowski family castle) and the monastery of Dominicans, which has become well-known owing to the holy icon of Our Lady of Dzików.
Tarnobrzeg played an important role in the formation of Poland. Here for the sake of Stanisław Leszczyński's protection, Dzików Confederation was proclaimed. From 1772 the city was a part of Austrian Empire and territorial property of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. Such an administrative structure lasted until the declaration of the Republic of Tarnobrzeg on November 6, 1918. In 1919 there was a renovation of the Second Tarnobrzeg Republic and Tarnobrzeg joined the state of Poland. During World War II the Jewish population of the city was completely destroyed, in 1937 it was 67% of the total population of Tarnobrzeg. The reminders of the Jewish history here are the Jewish cemetery and new building of synagogue, built on the site of the old, which was destroyed by German troops during the war on the territory of Subcarpathian Voivodeship.
The rapid development of the city began with the discovery of sulphur deposits there. Tarnobrzeg has become a major industrial centre of the county, and since 1975 — the centre of the province. In the 90s of the XXth century the sulphur industry fell into decay and the city after a brief period of economic recession began to develop in the tourism course. One of the most popular tourist sights of the city is Tarnowski Palace Park, which includes the castle (XIXth century), garden pavilion, riding hall, coach yard, kitchens and landscape park. In the XIXth century the collection of paintings by Titian, Van Dyke, Rembrandt and the manuscripts of Pan Tadeusz were kept in the castle. After the fire, which took place in 1927, the castle was rebuilt in the Baroque style. Valuable furniture decorated by metallography was preserved in the castle's library.